Hubungan Kebisingan Dengan Gangguan Pendengaran Dan Kejiwaan Para Pekerja Terpapar Bising

  • Rohmatullah Subekti Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Telinga Hidung Tenggorok-Bedah Kepala dan Leher Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro/ RSUP Dr. Kariadi
  • Muyassaroh Muyassaroh Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Telinga Hidung Tenggorok-Bedah Kepala dan Leher RSUP Dr. Kariadi
  • Zulfikar Naftali Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Telinga Hidung Tenggorok-Bedah Kepala dan Leher Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro/ RSUP Dr. Kariadi

Abstract

Latar belakang: Kebisingan di tempat kerja seringkali menjadi problem bagi tenaga kerja. Paparan bising dapat menyebabkan gangguan auditori yaitu noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) dan gangguan non auditori berupa gangguan kejiwaan seperti depresi, kecemasan serta stress.

Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kebisingan terhadap kejadian gangguan pendengaran dan kejiwaan pada pekerja terpapar bising.

Metode: Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif analitik dengan design belah lintang. Tingkat kebisingan diukur dengan menggunakan alat sound level meter (SLM), gangguan pendengaran dinilai dari hasil audiometri, gangguan kejiwaan dinilai dari jawaban kuesioner Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS 42) dari WHO. Analisis data dengan uji chi square.

Hasil : Data yang didapatkan dari 326 sampel menunjukkan bahwa 179 (54.9%) subjek mempunyai masa kerja lebih dari 10 tahun dan 147 (45.1%) subjek mempunyai masa kerja kurang dari 10 tahun. Sebanyak 51 (15.6%) pekerja mengalami NIHL dan 154 (47.2%) pekerja mengalami gangguan jiwa. Terdapat hubungan antara lama paparan bising (P= 0.000) dan intensitas kebisingan (P= 0.022) terhadap kejadian NIHL, dan intensitas kebisingan terhadap derajat keparahan depresi (P= 0.007)

Kesimpulan: Lama paparan dan intensitas bising berhubungan dengan gangguan pendengaran sedangkan intensitas bising berhubungan dengan derajat keparahan depresi. Dibandingkan dengan intensitas bising, lama paparan bising mempunyai hubungan yang lebih besar terhadap kejadian NIHL.

Kata kunci : Kebisingan, NIHL, depresi, ansietas, stres

 

Background: Noise can raise significant issues in the workplaces. It can affect either auditory disturbance called Noise Induce Hearing Loss (NIHL) or non-auditory disturbance involving psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and stress.

Objective: To examine the relationship between noise in the workplace and the incidence of hearing impairment and psychiatric disorders.

Method: The study design is analitic desciptive with cross-sectional approach. The noise level was measured with sound-level-metre (SLM), hearing disorders was assessed with audiometric and psychiatric disorder was assessed with Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS 42). The data were analized with chi square.

Results : A total of 326 workers were sampled during this study showing that  179 (54.9%) workers have worked over 10 years and 179 (54.9%) workers have worked less than 10 years. It was found that 51 (15.6%) workers suffered from NHIL and 154 (47.2%) workers suffered from mental disorders. A significant relationship was found between the incidence of NIHL and years of noise exposure (P= 0.000) and noise intensity (P= 0.022). A significant relationship was found between noise intensity and depression severity (P= 0.007)

Conclusion: The years of noise exposure and noise intensity were related to haring disorders. The noise intensity were related to the depression severity. In comparison with noise intensity, a stronger relationship was found between years of noise exposure and the incidence of NIHL.

Keywords : Noise, NIHL, depression, anxiety, stress

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Published
2019-11-25
Section
Original Article