Risk Factors of Mortality In Probable Covid-19 Cases In RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang

Authors

  • Yui Prashandika Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Setyo Gundi Pramudo Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Sigid Kirana Lintang Bhima Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Tuntas Dhanardhono Departemen of Forensic and Medicolegal Studies, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36408/mhjcm.v10i3.957

Keywords:

Mortality, probable COVID-19, Risk factors

Abstract

BACKGROUND: On February 19th, 2021, City of Semarang recorded 164 death cases of probable COVID-19. A study of patients who died from COVID-19 found that the death cases occured mostly in patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, renal disease, chronic lung disease, and malignancy. The definitions of probable COVID-19 by WHO is a suspected case with radiological features leading to COVID-19 infection.

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to prove pneumoniae, chronic lung disease, heart disease, hypertension, DM, renal disease, and malignancy as risk factors of mortality in probable COVID-19 patients.

METHOD: This study used analytic observational design with  cross-sectional study approach. Consecutive sampling technique was used with minimum sample of 57 probable COVID-19 medical records. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS program with univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis.

RESULT:  The majority of probable COVID-19 patients died with a number of 65 subjects (91,5%), while the probable COVID-19 patients that survived are only 6 subjects (8,5%). Risk factors like pneumoniae (p=0,151; PR=0,9; 95%CI[0,78-1,03]), chronic lung disease (p=0,764; PR=1,09; 95%CI[1,02-1,18]), heart disease (p=0,591; PR=1,03; 95%CI[0,88-1.20]), hypertension (p=0,254; PR=1,08; 95%CI[0,95-1,23]), DM (p=0,361 PR=1,06; 95%CI[0,93-1,21]), renal disease (p=0,523; PR=1,10; 95%CI[1,02-1,19]), and malignancy (p=0,523; PR=1,10; 95%CI[1,02-1,19]) have not been proven to be risk factors for death in patients probable of COVID-19 at dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang.

CONCLUSION: Pneumoniae, chronic lung disease, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, and malignancy have not been proven to be risk factors for death in patients probable of COVID-19 at dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Pemerintah kota semarang. Kota Semarang Siaga Corona [Internet]. 2021. Available from: https://siagacorona.semarangkota.go.id/h alaman/covid19

2. Chen T, Wu D, Chen H, Yan W, Yang D, Chen G, et al. Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: Retrospective study. BMJ. 2020;368.

3. Tian J, Yuan X, Xiao J, Zhong Q, Yang C, Liu B, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID- 19 disease severity in patients with cancer in Wuhan, China: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. Lancet Oncol [Internet]. 2020;21(7):893–903. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470- 2045(20)30309-0

4. Pathania AS, Prathipati P, Abdul BAA, Chava S, Katta SS, Gupta SC, et al. COVID-19 and cancer comorbidity: Therapeutic opportunities and challenges. Theranostics. 2020;11(2):731–53.

5. World Health Organization W. WHO COVID-19: Case Definition. 2020;(December):2020.

6. Scohy A, Anantharajah A, Bodéus M, Kabamba-mukadi B, Verroken A, Rodriguez-villalobos H. Low performance of rapid antigen detection test as frontline testing for COVID-19 diagnosis. J Clin Virol. 2020;129(January):1–3.

7. Organization. WH. Laboratory testing strategy recommendations for COVID-19. World Heal Organ [Internet]. 2020;(March). Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331509/WHO-COVID-19-lab_testing-2020.1-eng.pdf

8. Du RH, Liang LR, Yang CQ, Wang W, Cao TZ, Li M, et al. Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARSCoV- 2: Amprospective cohort study. Eur Respir J. 2020;56(3).

9. Sanyaolu A, Okorie C, Marinkovic A, Patidar R, Younis K, Desai P, et al. Comorbidity and its Impact on Patients with COVID-19. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020;2(8):1069–76.

10. Sudoyo AW, Setiyohadi B, Alwi l, Simadibrata M, Setiati S. Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Jilid II. Edisi V. JAKARTA: Interna Publishing; 2009.

11. Zhang ZX, Yong Y, Tan WC, Shen L, Ng HS, Fong KY. Prognostic factors for mortality due to pneumonia among adults from different age groups in Singapore and mortality predictions based on PSI and CURB-65. Singapore Med J. 2018;59(4):190–8.

12. Syamsun A, Kadriyan H, Andiwijaya FR, Hunaifi I, Lestarini I, Sari SK, et al. Postmortem diagnosis characteristics of probable covid-19 victims by rapid molecular testing. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 2021;712(1).

13. Alqahtani JS, Oyelade T, Aldhahir AM, Alghamdi SM, Almehmadi M, Alqahtani AS, et al. Prevalence, severity and mortality associated with COPD and smoking in patients with COVID-19: A rapid systematic review and meta- analysis. PLoS One [Internet]. 2020;15(5):1–13. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0 233147

14. Leung JM, Yang CX, Tam A, Shaipanich T, Hackett TL, Singhera GK, et al. ACE-2 expression in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients: Implications for COVID-19. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(5).

15. Li J, Guo T, Dong D, Zhang X, Chen X, Feng Y, et al. Defining heart disease risk for death in COVID-19 infection. Qjm. 2020;113(12):876–82.

16. Si J, Fallon A, Df W, Hanlon OR. Cardiac magnetic resonance in COVID- 19 positive and probable cases : A report from a high volume CMR centre in Ireland. 2021;22:159–60.

17. Munir B, Rianawati SB, Kurniawan SN, Santoso WM, Arisetijono E, Candradikusuma D, et al. Neurological Manifestation on Hospitalized Patient With Probable Covid-19 in Saiful Anwar Hospital Indonesia (Serial Cases). MNJ (Malang Neurol Journal). 2020;6(2):51– 5.

18. Rastad H, Karim H, Ejtahed HS, Tajbakhsh R, Noorisepehr M, Babaei M, et al. Risk and predictors of in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetol Metab Syndr [Internet]. 2020;12(1):1–11. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-020- 00565-9

19. Meng. Cancer history is an independent risk factor in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. J Hemato. 2020;0:1–11.

20. Berbudi A, Rahmadika N, Tjahjadi AI, Ruslami R. Type 2 Diabetes and its Impact on the Immune System. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2019;16(5):442–9.

21. Corona G, Pizzocaro A, Vena W, Rastrelli G, Semeraro F, Isidori AM, et al. Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta- analysis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021;22(2):275–96.

22. Pan X wu, Xu D, Zhang H, Zhou W, Wang L hui, Cui X gang. Identification of a potential mechanism of acute kidney injury during the COVID-19 outbreak: a study based on single-cell transcriptome analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(6):1114–6. 

23. Wang B, Luo Q, Zhang W, Yu S, Cheng X, Wang L, et al. The Involvement of Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Kidney Injury in Disease Severity and Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Meta-Analysis. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2021;46(1):17–30.

24. Piñana JL, Martino R, García-García I, Parody R, Morales MD, Benzo G, et al. Risk factors and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancies. Exp Hematol Oncol [Internet]. 2020;9(1):1–16. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40164- 020-00177-z

 

 

Additional Files

Published

2023-11-29

How to Cite

1.
Prashandika Y, Pramudo SG, Lintang Bhima SK, Dhanardhono T. Risk Factors of Mortality In Probable Covid-19 Cases In RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. Medica Hospitalia J. Clin. Med. [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 29 [cited 2024 May 26];10(3):364-9. Available from: http://medicahospitalia.rskariadi.co.id/medicahospitalia/index.php/mh/article/view/957

Issue

Section

Original Article

Citation Check