Covid-19 dan Koinfeksi Penyakit Parasit


  • Reqgi First Trasia Bagian Parasitologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Indonesia



Covid-19, koinfeksi, malaria, cacingan, penyakit parasit


LATAR BELAKANG: Kondisi pandemi, kasus Covid-19 semakin meningkat, manifestasi klinis seperti demam, batuk, diare, muntah, sakit kepala, mialgia dan kelelahan, mungkin sulit untuk membedakan COVID-19 dari spektrum penyakit dengan manifestasi serupa, seperti malaria dan cacingan, terutama di daerah endemik. Di Indonesia belum ada artikel yang membahas Covid-19 dengan koinfeksi malaria dan cacing. TUJUAN: Tujuan penulisan ini adalah menelaah dampak klinis infeksi Covid-19 dengan komorbid infeksi parasit yaitu malaria dan kecacingan. METODE: Penelusuran kepustakaan 154 jurnal, terdapat 4 jurnal yang relevan. DISKUSI: Manifestasi klinis malaria yang parah terjadi karena respon proinflamasi yang meningkat, hal yang sama terjadi dalam banyak kasus COVID-19. Koinfeksi Malaria dan COVID-19 dapat menyebabkan respons pro-inflamasi yang berlebihan, manifestasi klinis lebih parah dan prognosis buruk. Berdasarkan imunopatogenitas dari infeksi cacing di daerah endemis, dikhawatirkan hal tersebut akan meningkatkan keparahan gejala Covid-19 pada pasien dengan koinfeksi cacing. KESIMPULAN: Pada kasus Covid-19 yang diikuti dengan koinfeksi malaria menunjukkan keparahan manifestasi klinis akibat peningkatan respon inflamasi. Diduga bahwa respon imun hospes terhadap cacing akan memberikan dampak klinis yang lebih berat pada kasus Covid-19.

Kata kunci: Covid-19, koinfeksi, malaria, cacingan, penyakit parasit


BACKGROUND: The condition of the Covid-19 pandemic where the number of cases is increasing. Clinical manifestations such as fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, myalgia and fatigue, it may be difficult to distinguish COVID-19 from the spectrum of diseases with similar manifestations, such as malaria and intestinal worms, especially in endemic areas. Indonesia there are no articles discussing Covid-19 with malaria and worm coinfection. OBJECTIVE: The purpose this article is to review the clinical impact of Covid-19 infection with comorbid parasitic infections, in this case malaria and worms. METHOD: Search the literature of 154 journals, there are 4 journals that are relevant DISCUSSION: The severe manifestations of malaria occur because of an increased proinflammatory response, the same thing happens in many cases of COVID-19. Malaria coinfection and COVID-19 can then cause excessive pro-inflammatory responses, severe manifestations and a poor prognosis. In addition, based on immunopathogenicity from worm infections in endemic areas, it is feared that this will increase the severity of Covid-19 symptoms in patients with worm co-infection. CONCLUSION: In the case of Covid-19 followed by co-infection with malaria, it shows the severity of clinical manifestations due to increased inflammatory response. Tobe assumed that the host's immune response to worms will have a more severe clinical impact in the Covid-19 case.

Keywords: Covid-19, coinfection, malaria, intestinal worms, parasitic diseases


Download data is not yet available.


1. WHO. Public health round-up WHO. Bull World Health Organ 2020a;98(3):155–6, Available at:
2. Kemenkes RI. Info Infeksi Emerging: Laporan Gugus Tugas Covid-19 2020. Jakarta. Available at:
3. Sundus sardar, Rohit Sharma, Tariq YMA, Mohamed Aboukamar. Covid-19 and Plasmodium vivax Malaria Co-infection. 2020. Elsevier. Available at:
4. Ummamah N. Mengatasi ancaman malaria: Antara News. 2020. Available at:
5. Wu Z, McGoogan JM,. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. JAMA323: 1239–1242.
6. CDC. Parasites. 2020. Available at:
7. American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. Red Book: 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 31st edition. Itasca, IL:American Academy of Pediatrics.
8. Richard S., David P, Andrew G, Siddharta M. Will helminth co-infection modulate Covid-19 severity in endemic regions?. 2020. Available at:
9. Huang C. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. 2020. Lancet 395, 497–506
10. Brosschot, T. P. & Reynolds, L. A. The impact of a helminth- modified microbiome on host immunity. 2018. Mucosal Immunol. 11, 1039–1046
11. Lai CC, Wang CY, Hsueh PR. Co-infections among patients with COVID-19: the need for combination therapy with non-anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents? [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 23]. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020(20), Available at: S1684-S1182 30127-4.
12. Lam LTM Chua YX, Tan DHY. Roles and challenges of primary care physicians facing a dual outbreak of COVID-19 and dengue in Singapore. Fam Pract 2020, Available at doi:
13. Akanmori BD, Kurtzhals JA, Goka BQ, Adabayeri V, Ofori MF, Nkrumah FK et all. Distinct patterns of cytokine regulation in discrete clinical forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Eur Cytokine Netw 11: 2017; 113–118
14. Gutman JR, Lucchi NW, Cantey PT. Malaria and Parasitic Neglected Tropical Diseases: potential Syndemics with COVID-19? [published online ahead of print, 2020 jun 1]. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020;10:, Available at: doi: 4269/ajtmh.20-0516
15. Mvumbi DM. Mass intake of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine in the present context of the Covid-19 outbreak: possible consequences in endemic malaria settings. Med Hypotheses 2020;143:109912, Available at : mehy.2020.109912
16. Uzun T, Artesunate Toptas O. could be an alternative drug to chloroquine in COVID-19 treatment? Chin Med 2020;15:54, Available at
17. Maizels RM, McSorley HJ. Regulation of the host immune system by helminth parasites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 138: 2016; 666–75.
18. Campbell SJ. Complexities and perplexities: a critical appraisal of the evidence for soil-transmitted helminth infection related morbidity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: 2016 e0004566.
19. Moreels T, Nieuwendijk R, De Man J, Winter D, Herman A, Van Marck E et al. Concurrent infection with Schistosoma mansoni attenuates inflammation induced changes in colonic morphology, cytokine levels, and smooth muscle contractility of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colitis in rats. Gut. 2016;53(1):99-107.
20. Epidemiology NCPER. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Feb 10;41(2):145-151.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Trasia RF. Covid-19 dan Koinfeksi Penyakit Parasit. Medica Hospitalia J. Clin. Med. [Internet]. 2020 Aug. 28 [cited 2024 Apr. 23];7(1A):298-303. Available from:

Citation Check